- This is a case of a peritoneal-pericardial diaphragmatic hernia with secondary compression of the right ventricle and resulting pleural and pericardial effusion. Most candidates did poorly on this case.
- From the videoclips, you can identify a hypoechoic mass within the pericardium causing compression of the right ventricle. Immediately adjacent to the hypoechoic structure is a large hyperechoic region consistent with fat. This area (hyperechoic and hypoechoic) can be traced caudally and clearly blends in with the hepatic parenchyma.
- There’s mild dilation of the caudal vena cava.
- The pericardium can be seen with fluid in both the pericardial and pleural space.
- Candidates who did poorly on this case failed to recognize the structure as hepatic. They also failed to recognize the hyperechoic region as falciform fat.
- Many candidates attempted to make this a primary pulmonary mass or cranial mediastinal mass while ignoring the association with the pericardium and right ventricle.
- Those candidates that were successful easily recognized the hyperechoic tissue as fat which prompted them to pay careful attention for a peritoneal pericardial diaphragmatic hernia.
- This case tested the candidates ability to recognize thoracic anatomy in addition to having some comfort with the heart on ultrasound.