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Positive Contrast Cystogram
- Thickening of the cranial and ventral urinary bladder wall with irregular cyst-like structure extending into the thickened wall at the vertex
- Reflux of contrast into the right kidney with mild dilation of the renal pelvis
Double Contrast Cystogram
- Marked thickening of the apex of the bladder with retention of positive contrast on irregular mucosa.
- Retention of positive contrast in cyst-like lesion in the wall of the bladder
- Urachal remnant/diverticulum
- Chronic cystitis
- Culture (may be affected by contrast medium)
- This case was handled well by most candidates with a good overall score.
- Reflux of contrast into the right ureter and right renal pelvis secondary to the cystogram was frequently interpreted as occurring from a previous excretory urogram despite clearly labeled images and lack of contrast in the renal parenchyma, and lack of visualization of the left kidney.
- Reflux was also frequently interpreted as abnormal due to pyelonephritis or reabsorption of contrast systemically.
- The thickened bladder wall was occasionally not seen and not interpreted as cystitis
- Management did not always address the primary and secondary problems